Vedic Sanskrit And World Languages
Life existed on earth for thousands of years. Scientists of various fields have been striving to find out truths about the universe, heavenly bodies, the earth and the other natural phenomena. Language — a unique feature of human species — also provides innumerable and more appropriate clues to the history of human civilization. This series of articles, entitled “Vedic Sanskrit and World Languages,” is intended to show how all the 5000 languages of the world have been derived from Sanskrit and Sanskrit alone.. The historians of the west could trace human civilization only to a few thousand years in the past. The Vedas provided the first language Sanskrit, and all the knowledge to the world. A study how Vedic Sanskrit has been the mother of all the languages– 2700 with script and 2300 without– will once again bring out a fact. It is: the whole world followed the Vedas before the world got divided into narrow segments called countries, and various religions developed, each laying stress on a part of Vedic style of life. As far as the Vedic Sanskrit being the common language of the world is concerned, one fact is indisputable. By the 8th Century B.C., when no other full-fledged language was in existence, Panini, the great grammarian had even codified Sanskrit, which was in existence for thousands of years before him. He recorded about 2123 verb forms (Dhatus) and many more are available in the Vedic Sanskrit. The present Sanskrit uses only 520 Dhatus of them. An objective study of these facts about Vedic culture and language flays a few of the general misconceptions.
1. The Vedas belong to India and India only.
Fact: The Vedas are the premier and comprehensive compendia of knowledge and had been widespread all through the world.
2. Sanskrit is an Indian Language.
Fact: Sanskrit is the first language of the world as the Vedic Culture is the first fully developed culture of the world, and all the people followed it from the ancient times.
3. Maharshis were Indian and belong to India only.
Fact: The great Rishis, whose names we proudly claim to be ours, belonged to the entire world and hailed from different corners of the globe. They were a distinguished group of wise men who directed the world both in material and spiritual aspects of human life. For example, Atri Maharshi hailed from Athristaly which is modern Italy. Kapila was from South America, which was called Padatala at that time. Vyasa was well- known to have been the guru of the world as he categorized the Vedas, gifted the world with his great book The Mahabharatha, and fit the entire knowledge of the world into his Eighteen Mahapuranas. Greeks recordedr him under the name Beas. Aristotle of Greece (3rd Century B.C) and Voltaire of France (18th Century A.D.) made a mention of Beas as the greatest scholar of the world in their writings.
Further research into the Vedic culture might yield may more facts. All these facts reiterate the ancient Vedic and the Latest Western concept of the world being a single village. The Vedic people, as they had developed communications such as today, were very developed community and did believe and say Vasudhaika Kutmbakam, meaning the world is but one family. As Rabindranath Tagore, an astute scholar dreamt all these barriers among countries will vanish if we are objective enough to accept these facts. The boundaries among the countries will then appear imposed and artificial, and the nationalities may merge into one universal community. This idea gets support from the prayer done by Vedic scholars for peace, addressing the entire universe and seeking peace for it and all the living beings there in.
To further validate the claim, some more examples may be considered here. At first the examples are taken from English, the global language, which claims it roots in the Western Classical Languages, Greek and Latin. This study may, in some instances, disagree with the prevailing linguistic theories; but it certainly throws some more challenges before them to investigate the origins of the world languages, in a very objective and dispassionate manner. Such a scientific study reveals the inherent unity of the world languages, flaying the apparent diversity.
As far as the case of Greek and Latin are considered, one should follow the real Indian History and not the British Indian History which detracts it. It is a well-known fact that the history of Greece is traceable – as a civilized nation – from 2000 B.C. Greek Language had come into prominence only by about 2 to 3 hundred years before Socrates. Sanskrit – meaning that which is refined – had been in existence then all through the world; and was already a fully developed and wide-spread Language by then, and Panini had codified it in the 8th Century B.C. In the case of Latin too, such historical evidences are available. Indian History recorded that Emperor Harshavardhana had conquered Latadesa; the description and the distance of Latadesa shows that this is the modern Italy. Latin, called Latani, originated from here. This clearly shows that before the time when Greek and Latin evolved and came to be used as developed languages, the Vedic Sanskrit was the globally used tongue. At the time of Mahabharatha war in 3138 B.C., there were 56 Kingdoms in the entire world and their common language was Vedic Sanskrit. The names of those kingdoms and their kings are very much available with us.
The influence of Vedic Sanskrit on Latin and Greek would be considered subsequently.. Some examples from English can be considered here to show that every word of English has its origin in Vedic Sanskrit. The anomalies present in English such as silent letters, spelling-pronunciation discordance, extra or un pronounced letters/clusters in words, letters such as ‘C’ having 2 different sounds as ‘S’ and ‘K’ can be explained, if the origins of these words are studied carefully.
Read this dialogue between an elderly person and a boy which goes on as follows. Let us study this juxtaposed with their Sanskrit equivalents:
1. Eng: Please, close the door and come here.
San: Preyase, krishaya tat dwara ani kramaya are.
2. Eng: No, I cannot. I am not a servant boy.
San: Na, aham krunanat. Aha nemi natu eka sevayanta bhavah.
3. Eng: Please, don’t mistake me. You are a very good
San: Preyase, dunatu mushataksha me. Yuvan varaya eka vara guni
friend of us.
priyamvadah api asmakam.
4. Eng: Alright, agreed . I will do what you want.
San: Allarita, agruheeta. Aham ullasena doyam yat. yuvan wanchati.
5. Eng: Thank you my friend. I am quite happy.
San: Dhanyarak yuvan mama priyamvadah. Aham emi krite abhaya.
In the above dialogue, every English word has its Sanskrit original given below. Over decades and centuries, the sounds might have slightly changed in use. Every word in English can be traced to its Sanskrit original. In fact, the silent ‘p’ in words like
‘pneumonia’ and ‘Psychology’ can easily be explained by taking their Sanskrit originals.. Let us se if there exists any pattern in these derivations.
Pattern I: English words ending in ‘- tion’ have their original Sanskrit words ending in ‘-twam’ or ‘-tyam’.
1. creation – kriyatwam 4. navigation – navikatwam
2. narration – navaratatwam 5. realization – rahiavasatwam
3. nation – nadyam 6. sensation – semusheetwam
(‘d’ sound might have become ‘t’ in use)
Pattern II: English words ending in’– ing’ are derived from Sanskrit words with a final ‘-am’
1. clapping – kalapam 2. morning – prahnyam 3. sleeping – swapam
4. stealing – steyam 5. viewing – vyuham
Pattern III: English words ending in ‘– ed’ have their roots in the Sanskrit words ending in ‘-its’.
1. heated – hetita 2. naked – nagnita 3. rated – reetita
4. seated – seedhita 5. waited – wesita
Note: The word ‘Vesya’ meaning a lady who waits [a prositute] has been derived from the word ‘Vesita’.
Some other words to be considered are:
1. champion – Vyshampayana (an expert in sastras)
2. replica – rupalekha 23. universe – yonivarsha
(the form and luster of the thing concerned)
3. good – guni 24. union – yoniyam
4. bad – baddha (a person tied by his materialistic temptations)
5. behaviour – abhiviar 25. aster – asudhara
6. round – randhra 26. metropolis – maheedharapolias
7. shariat – shruthi 27. thunder – thund
8. idea – videa 28. study – swadheethi
9. committee – samithi 29. student – swadheetivanta
10. commit – sammathi 30. write – writhi
11. parallel – paralola 31. read – ratha
12. line – leena 32. speak – suvak
13. sweet – swedam 33. curriculum – gurukulum
14. pride – pravridhi 34. stanza – chanda
15. minimum – mahanimnam 35. poet – bhavayut
16. maximum – mahakshomam 36. photo – patha
17. fool – bala (an innocent person) 37. pneuoma – pranayama
18. food – padha 38.phenomena – fenamana
(meaning the surf on the ocean waters,
meaning what seen but not there).
19. foot – pada 39. judge – adhyaksha
20. school – sukula 40.advocate – abhivakta
21. human – sumana 41. ethics – vaidika
22. cloud – kalatoyada 42. republic – pariprapalika
[Note: The above word “pneuoma” meaning “Science of Breath” given in Latin, ‘P’ is silent but it is written here as the original Sanskrit word begins with that].
One could still argue this is a coincidence that out of thousands and lakhs of words in a language, some may resemble –in pronunciation – the words of another language. A study of some sets of words belonging to one particular field may prove that it was not a just coincidence, but when a new language forms it ought to absorb most of the words already in use. Let us take some fields and observe some of the words of that field, in Sanskrit and English.
I Signs of the Zodiac:
1. Aries – Aryas (the first)
2. Taurus – Toobarus (bull without horns)
3. Gemini – Kaminau (man and woman in love)
4. Cancer – Konachara (that which walks sideways, meanings, a crab).
For the word ‘Konachara’ there is another form ‘Kanachara’ which means ‘that which eats cells’. This exactly suits the meaning cancer, the disease.
5. Leo – Layya (Lion)
6. Virgo – Viraja (spinster)
7. Libra – Laghnbhara (a balance)
8. Scorpio – Srupya (a scorpion)
9. Sagittarius – Sajjitaswarus (a bow)
10. Capricorn – Khaprakarana
11. Aquarius – Akshavaris (That which has unlimited water – a pot)
12. Pieces – Visaras (fish)
II Names of the Planets:
1. Sun – Suna 5. Saturn – Sthanu
2. Moon – Mana 6. Mercury – Amarsury
3. Mars – Maharochas 7. Venus – Vushanus
4. Jupitor – Vidyapitha
Heli meaning Sun has been directly borrowed by Greek from Sanskrit. Like the word universe (yonivarsha), it is not difficult to find equivalents to other words and expressions of Astronomy.
III Names of Months:
1. January – Januvaara 5. May – Mayavaara
2. February – Priyavaara 6. June – Joonyavaara
3. March – Mareechi 7. July – Soolavaara
4. April – Apriya 8. August – Agastyavaara
Note: The above two words are supposed to have been taken after the names of Julius and Augustus. But Julius and Augustus seem to have been derived from Sanskrit.
9. September – Saptamavaara 11. November – Navamavaara
10. October – Ashtamavaara 12. December – Dasamavaara
These four names indicate the numbers 7, 8, 9 and 10 and, paradoxically, they are 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th months if January is taken as the first month of the year. This paradox can be solved if we understand that, in ancient times, it was March that began the year and not January even according to the Western Calendar. That is why September becomes 7th month and so on. Again, ‘Vaara’ in Sanskrit means a circle, which infers one month with one new moon day and one full moon day. Each month is complete in itself; and the twelve months together make one bigger circle, a year. Again, why should there be 12 months and not 13. There cannot be as the Sun, the life giver, rises in one sign of the zodiac during 1 month and there are only 12 signs in the zodiac. So every thing revolves round the Sun who has been mentioned as the sole God of the Universe.
IV. The Names of the Subjects:
1. Astronomy – Asudharaniyama (rules for stars)
2. Physics – Pasyakas (that which is seen)
3. Chemistry – Karmasutra
4. Biology – Ubhayalochya (comprising the lives of the two –
plants and animals)
5. Geology – Jyaalochya (Science of the Earth)
6. Zoology – Jeevaalochya
7. Botany – Bhatavani (Garden full of Plants)
8. Society/Social – Susahitya/Susahitya
9. Economics – Okaniyama (Planning the expenditure of the house, in
Latin , Okosnomos).
10. Architecture – Archatakshitar
11. Engineering – Yunjaneevaram (concerned with machines)
12. Medicine – Madhyaasanam (that which prescribes the right diet)
13. Administration/ – Abhimantritwam
14. Philosophy – Phalaswabhava
15. Psychology – Pasavikaalochya
(The removal of the first vowel ‘a’ makes ‘p’ silent in the English word.)
16. Arithmatics – Arthamatikas
17. Geometry – Jamitir
18. Politics – Politeekas
19. History – Istari
20. Public Administration – Prapalika Abhimantritwam
21. Photography – Pathagrahy
22. Geography – Geograhy
23. Telegraphy – Talagrahy (indicatory distance)
V A) The Names of Parts of Speech in English:
1. noun – naman 6. adverb – adhiaavirbhava
2. pronoun – pranaman 7. preposition – purvaposhitam
3. article – vrithikriya 8. conjunction – samyuktam
4. verb – aavirbhava 9. interjection – anteravyaktavyam
5. adjective – adhivyaktavya
B) The types and parts of Sentences:
1. positive – poshatatya 4. subject – suvyakta
2. negative – nagantavya 5. object – abhivyakta
3. sentence – samitaamsa
VI Many scientific terms have their originals in Sanskrit:
1. solids – siladi 8. primeval – pradhamya
2. liquids – lehyadi 9. red – rudra
3. gases – kasa (light) 10. green – harina
Note: All gases are supposed to be light rays.
4. round – randhra 11. ocean – aasayam
5. compare – samabhara 12. cloud – kala
6. circle – chakra 13. lightening – lasatwam
7. union – yonion 14. paravara – river
VII The numbers bear a strong clue to the argument given so far:
1. one – yoni 2. two – dwe
3. three – three 4. four – chatur
5. five – pancha 6. six – shat
7. seven – saptama 8. eight – astama
9. nine – navama 10. ten – dasaka
11. eleven – ekalavam
(why 11 is pronounced as ‘eleven’ has a clue in the Original Sanskrit word).
12. twelve – dwilavam 13. thirteen – thriyodasan
14. fourteen – chaturda 15. fifteen – panchadasan
16. sixteen – shatdasan 17. seventeen – saptandasan
18. eighteen – ashtandasan 19. nineteen – navandasan
20. twenty – dwadasanthi
In any language nomenclature is a very important procedure. The very word ‘name’ has been derived from ‘namamu’. Some of the simple words such as ‘boy’ and ‘girl’ are recorded under the category ‘ origins not known’ in the Etymological Dictionary of English. The origins of such words can easily be explained with the help of Sanskrit Language. To do so one must know the traditions that prevailed at the time when Sanskrit was the spoken language during the Vedic Period. It was a practice to call a boy as “bhava” (Siva) and a girl as “gowri” (Parvathi). The words boy and girl have been derived from “bhava” and “gowri” respectively.
Thousands of examples could be quoted from Vedic Sanskrit which had provided innumerable languages to the world. A deep study with an open mind would bring out many more staggering truths.
Mr. Y. Narayana Murthy
Prof. D. Kanakadurga.
The authors of the article are compiling a Dictionary of Vedic Sanskrit and English. Any Suggestions or contributions are welcome. This series of articles will give the Sanskrit origins of the Terms used in modern science in the subjects like Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, Medicine etc.. That might throw some light on the fact that Vedic Sanskrit is the mother of all the languages of the world.